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Monday, May 21, 2018


  • A newly emerging zoonosis 
  • RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Henipavirus, and closely related to Hendra virus.
  • Gets its name from the village in Malaysia where the person from whom the virus was first isolated succumbed to the disease. 
  • Natural host - fruit bats of the Pteropodidae Family, Pteropus genus. (Grey-headed flying foxes - Pteropus poliocephalus)
  • The virus is present in bat urine and potentially, bat faeces, saliva, and birthing fluids. 
  • Transmission may be due to fomites – or carrying the virus on clothing, equipment, boots, vehicles.
  • First outbreak - in Kampung Sungai Nipah, Malaysia, 1998. Intermediate hosts- Pigs. 
  • In 2004, Bangladesh - humans became infected with NiV as a result of consuming date palm sap that had been contaminated by infected fruit bats. 
  • Human-to-human transmission - documented. 
  • Can cause disease in pigs and other domestic animals
Clinical features- 
  • incubation period of 5 to 14 days
  • Presenting symptoms - 3-14 days of fever and headache, followed by drowsiness, disorientation and mental confusion. 
  • Can progress to coma within 24-48 hours.
  • Ranges from asymptomatic infection to acute respiratory syndrome and fatal encephalitis. 
  • Some patients have a respiratory illness during the early part of their infections, and half of the patients showing severe neurological signs showed also pulmonary signs.
  • Long-term sequelae noted -persistent convulsions and personality changes.
  • Latent infections with subsequent reactivation of Nipah virus and death have also been reported months and even years after exposure.
Treatment -
  • No specific treatment 
  • Intensive supportive care 
  • No vaccine 
Ref -

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